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IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation

IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation

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Frontiers in Computational Electromagnetics
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A Bayesian Compressive Sensing Approach to Robust Near-Field Antenna Characterization
M. SalucciN. AnselmiM. D. MiglioreA. Massa
Keywords:Noise measurementAntenna measurementsSignal to noise ratioAntennasUncertaintyBayes methodsProbabilistic logicAntenna measurementsantenna qualificationcompressive sensing (CS)near-field (NF) pattern estimationnear-field to far-field (NF-FF) transformationsparsity retrievaltruncation error
Abstracts:A novel probabilistic sparsity-promoting method for robust near-field (NF) antenna characterization is proposed. It leverages on the measurements-by-design (MebD) paradigm, and it exploits some a priori information on the antenna under test (AUT) to generate an overcomplete representation basis. Accordingly, the problem at hand is reformulated in a compressive sensing (CS) framework as the retrieval of a maximally sparse distribution (with respect to the overcomplete basis) from a reduced set of measured data, and then, it is solved by means of a Bayesian strategy. Representative numerical results are presented to, also comparatively, assess the effectiveness of the proposed approach in reducing the “burden/cost” of the acquisition process and mitigate (possible) truncation errors when dealing with space-constrained probing systems.
<italic>H</italic>-Matrix-Based Direct Solver of JMCFIE for the Analysis of Scattering From Penetrable Objects
T. WanM. Xie
Keywords:Matrix decompositionImpedanceSurface impedanceMemory managementDielectricsIntegral equationsPlasmonsDirect solverelectric and magnetic current combined-field integral equation (JMCFIE)low-rank decompositionpenetrable objectsplasmonic nanostructure
Abstracts:Method of moments (MoMs) solution of the electric and magnetic current combined-field integral equation (JMCFIE) for penetrable objects generally resorts to iterative solvers, which suffer from the problems of convergence rate and redundant computation for multiple right-hand-sides (RHSs). In this communication, an efficient direct solver based on the hierarchical (<inline-formula> <tex-math notation="LaTeX">$mathcal {H}$ </tex-math></inline-formula>-) matrix technique is presented to solve these problems. <inline-formula> <tex-math notation="LaTeX">$mathcal {H}$ </tex-math></inline-formula>-matrix formatted algorithms provide an efficient way to factorize the impedance matrix with low computational costs, which make the direct solution feasible. Examples of electromagnetic scattering from a dielectric object and optical scattering from a plasmonic nanostructure are shown to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method.
A Multitrace Surface Integral Equation Solver to Simulate Graphene-Based Devices
Ran ZhaoLiang ChenPing LiJun HuHakan Bagci
Keywords:GrapheneMagnetic domainsMathematical modelsIntegral equationsElectromagneticsPerpendicular magnetic anisotropyConductivityGraphene-based devicemultitrace (MT)resistive boundary condition (RBC)surface integral equation (SIE)
Abstracts:A multitrace surface integral equation (MT-SIE) solver is proposed to analyze electromagnetic field interactions on composite devices involving magnetized and nonmagnetized graphene sheets. The computation domain is decomposed into two subdomains: an exterior subdomain that represents the unbounded background medium where the device resides in an interior subdomain that represents the dielectric substrate. Resistive Robin transmission conditions (RRTCs) are formulated to describe the infinitesimally thin graphene sheet that partially covers the surface between the two subdomains. On the rest of this surface, traditional Robin transmission conditions (RTCs) are enforced. The electric and magnetic field equations are used as the governing equations in each subdomain. The governing equations of a subdomain are locally coupled to the governing equations of its neighbor using RRTCs and RTCs. The accuracy and the applicability of the proposed MT-SIE solver are demonstrated by various numerical examples.
Frequency Selective Surface Composites With Honeycomb Absorbing Structure for Broadband Applications
Fan HeKaixuan SiRui LiDace ZhaJianxiong DongLing MiaoShaowei BieJianjun Jiang
Keywords:ImpedanceBandwidthAbsorptionHoneycomb structuresSubstratesReflectionReflectivityArea-coated grading honeycomb (ACGH)frequency selective surface (FSS)half-wavelength total reflection pointtransmission line model
Abstracts:A novel composite of an area-coated grading honeycomb (ACGH) structure and a frequency selective surface (FSS) was theoretically and experimentally investigated for use as broadband microwave absorbing. The main difference from the traditional FSS absorber was that the aramid honeycomb was replaced by an absorbing honeycomb structure, which increased the absorption bandwidth by suppressing the half-wavelength total reflection point. The physical mechanism was analyzed using an equivalent circuit model and the impedance range diagram. The designed absorber had a &#x2212;10 dB fractional absorption bandwidth of 154.3&#x0025; from 2.0 to 15.5 GHz, and it had a thickness of <inline-formula> <tex-math notation="LaTeX">$0.113lambda _{L} $ </tex-math></inline-formula> at the lowest frequency. The ACGH structure was integrally formed to ensure high structural strength. Reflectivity measurements were consistent with calculated values, validating the design principle and preparation technique for the composite.
Millimeter-Wave High-Efficiency Double-Layer Transmitarray Antenna Using Miniaturized Dual-Polarized Elements
Xi WangYang ChengYuandan Dong
Keywords:AperturesGainLensesTransmitting antennasWidebandSubstratesComplexity theoryDouble-layerdual-polarizationhigh-efficiencylensmillimeter-wave (mm-Wave)miniaturized lenstransmitarray antenna (TA)
Abstracts:A high-efficiency wideband double-layer transmitarray antenna (TA) using miniaturized array elements is proposed in the study for millimeter-wave (mm-Wave) applications. The transmitarray consists of 484 dual-polarized elements. Each element is composed of only two layers of identical modified Jerusalem crosses printed on a dielectric substrate. Additional stubs are used for size reduction, leading to a compact size with a periodicity of only <inline-formula> <tex-math notation="LaTeX">$0.44 lambda _{0}$ </tex-math></inline-formula>. It contributes to a high aperture efficiency for the proposed TA. TA is designed, fabricated, and measured. It achieves a peak gain of 28.67 dBi at 31 GHz and a high aperture efficiency of 44&#x0025;&#x2013;61.3&#x0025; within the 1 dB gain bandwidth, which is 10.3&#x0025; (29.5&#x2013;32.7 GHz) in the measurement. The proposed dual-polarized double-layer TA demonstrates simplified design complexity, reduced thickness and mass, and lower cost compared with the conventional TAs. It also exhibits high radiation gain and high aperture efficiency.
A Wideband Dual-Polarized Magneto-Electric Dipole Transmitarray With Independent Control of Polarizations
Fan WuJingxue WangLei XiangWei HongKwai-Man Luk
Keywords:WidebandProbesDipole antennasCopperTransmitting antennasMagnetoelectric effectsLayoutDiscrete lensdual polarizationmagnetoelectric (ME) dipoletransmitarraywideband
Abstracts:This communication presents a dual-polarized transmitarray antenna with wide bandwidth and independent beam control for each polarization. A new low-insertion-loss transmitarray element allowing wideband dual-polarized operation is proposed by using magnetoelectric (ME) dipole with shared radiating structure and interleaved orthogonal feeding probes; 1 bit phase adjustment can be realized individually for each polarization with additional freedom in manipulating the cross-polarization over a fractional bandwidth of 23&#x0025;. Three transmitarrays that achieve possibly different collimated beams and/or cross-polarization manipulation are designed and carried out at millimeter-wave frequencies covering from 23.5 to 32.5 GHz. Measurement results of the prototypes agree reasonably well with simulations, which validates the wideband operation and independent beam controls.
A Low-Profile Wide-Angle Reconfigurable Transmitarray Antenna Using Phase Transforming Lens With Virtual Focal Source
Min WangShenheng XuNan HuWenqing XieFan YangZhengchuan Chen
Keywords:Antenna arraysTransmitting antennasAntenna feedsLensesSlot antennasPhased arraysRectangular waveguidesBeam scanninglenslow profilereconfigurabletransmitarray
Abstracts:A low-profile wide-angle reconfigurable transmitarray antenna (RTA) is proposed in this communication. This RTA consists of a feeding antenna, a phase transforming lens, and a 1 bit phase-reconfigurable transmitting antenna (PRTA). The feeding antenna is composed of a 12 <inline-formula> <tex-math notation="LaTeX">$times12$ </tex-math></inline-formula> slot array fed by 36-way waveguide power divider, which possesses the characteristics of equal amplitude and in-phase distribution to obtain high efficiency. The desired 1 bit PRTA uses 16 <inline-formula> <tex-math notation="LaTeX">$times16$ </tex-math></inline-formula> array of C-shaped probe-fed patch elements to achieve flexible wide-angle beam scanning. To eliminate the mirror lobe effects of 1 bit phase quantization, the phase transforming lens with a <inline-formula> <tex-math notation="LaTeX">$16times16$ </tex-math></inline-formula> array of perforated dielectric element is designed to generate a spherical phase front from virtual focal source. By spatially cascading these three components, a low-profile RTA architecture is constituted, where the two spatial separations between adjacent components are <inline-formula> <tex-math notation="LaTeX">$0.20lambda _{mathbf {0}}$ </tex-math></inline-formula> and <inline-formula> <tex-math notation="LaTeX">$0.08lambda _{mathbf {0}}$ </tex-math></inline-formula> at 12.0 GHz, respectively. Finally, the proposed antenna prototype with an effective aperture of <inline-formula> <tex-math notation="LaTeX">$7.68lambda _{mathbf {0}} times 7.68lambda _{mathbf {0}}$ </tex-math></inline-formula> (192 mm <inline-formula> <tex-math notation="LaTeX">$times192$ </tex-math></inline-formula> mm) is fabricated and measured. The measured peak gain is 23.5 dBi at 12.0 GHz with aperture efficiency of 30.2&#x0025; and a 3 dB gain bandwidth of 1.1 GHz. The measured results demonstrate that the proposed design has the 2-D wide-angle beam scanning capability up to 60&#- 00B0;.
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