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IEEE Transactions on Education

IEEE Transactions on Education

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Engineering Entrepreneurship Program Participation: Differences Across Men and Women
Prateek Shekhar
Keywords:EntrepreneurshipInterviewsEncodingEducationTask analysisEngineering professionCodesengineering educationfurther educationinnovation managementEEPsengineering entrepreneurship program participationengineering graduatesentrepreneurial intententrepreneurial self-efficacyentrepreneurial skillsentrepreneurship educationgender factorsnonventure creation goalsresearch examining differencesEngineering educationentrepreneurshipqualitativerecruitment
Abstracts:Background: Entrepreneurship education has gained significant attention in engineering. This has led to the widespread development of engineering entrepreneurship programs (EEPs) that instill entrepreneurial skills and mindsets in engineering graduates. While research has documented the benefits of EEPs, there is a paucity of research examining differences among men and women on factors informing their participation in EEPs. The purpose of the study is to examine differences across men and women regarding the factors that influence their decision to participate in EEPs. Methodology: This study uses an interpretative, qualitative approach using 20 student interviews as the data source. The interview transcripts are analyzed to identify key emergent themes pertinent to the differences among men and women. Findings: The findings identify five themes that unpack the differences between men and women in regard with factors informing their participation in EEPs: entrepreneurial self-efficacy, entrepreneurial intent, venture and nonventure creation goals, subjective influence of peers, and instructional preferences. Conclusion: Factors informing participation in EEPs are nuanced in meanings across men and women. Administrators and practitioners may use the differing factors and their nuances to better design curricular, pedagogical, advising, and outreach aspects of EEPs to create equitable and inclusive environments for women.
Improving Accuracy of Self-and-Peer Assessment in Engineering Technology Capstone
Frederick C. BerryWanju HuangMarisa Exter
Keywords:TrainingTeamworkLogic gatesDynamic schedulingDesign methodologyCultural differencesBehavioral sciencescomputer aided instructioneducational coursesengineering educationadditional requirementscapstone engineering technology courseCATME rating scalecomprehensive assessment of team member effectiveness scalecourse designencouraging studentsfaculty feedbackinstructional interventionsoverall team performancepromptsrating valuesself-and-peer assessment trainingself-assessment ratingsstudent ratingsstudent self-and-peer assessmentteam communication plansteam defined rating scalesteam member effectiveness scaleAssessmentcapstonecomprehensive assessment of team member effectiveness (CATME)engineering technologyrubricself-and-peer assessment
Abstracts:<italic>Contributions:</italic> This article presents the findings of a study on the impact of instructional interventions (training and additional requirements and prompts) to improve the quality of students&#x2019; self-and-peer assessment in a capstone engineering technology course.</p> <p> <italic>Background:</italic> Historically, students in this course inflated rating values in comparison to the rubric, which specified what behaviors would &#x201C;meet&#x201D; or &#x201C;exceed&#x201D; expectations.</p> <p> <italic>Intended Outcomes:</italic> This study addresses the following research question: what is the impact of the interventions on student self-and-peer assessments? This is explored through comparing the distribution of peer-assessment and self-assessment ratings between different iterations of the course design, as well as the distribution of ratings across the duration of the year-long project experience.</p> <p> <italic>Application Design:</italic> Several instructional interventions aimed at self-and-peer assessment training were developed and implemented to improve the accuracy of student ratings over the course of four years. Interventions included adding lectures about the comprehensive assessment of team member effectiveness (CATME) scale; encouraging students to review the CATME rating scale prior to self-and-peer assessment; implementing a new component that is a <italic>team communication plan </italic>into the team reports written at each of six &#x201C;gates&#x201D; across the year-long project; requiring students to define the levels in the rating scale for their own team; and providing ongoing faculty feedback on team communication plans, team defined rating scales, and overall team performance.</p> <p> <italic>Findings:</italic> A comparison of student ratings across and within years indicated that the inte- ventions were successful in moving the distribution of ratings toward the center, or &#x201C;meets expectations.&#x201D; Findings align with the existing literature and may be relevant across disciplines.
Formative Tutoring: A Program for the Empowerment of Engineering Students
Lorenza Da ReRoberta BonelliAndrea Gerosa
Keywords:EducationContext modelingEngineering studentsEngineering professionAdaptation modelsTrainingPsychologyeducational courseseducational institutionsintelligent tutoring systemsacademic failureacademic performanceacademic successapplication designeconomic consequencesempowermentengineering studentsformative tutoringICT coursesICT studentsinformation and communication technologieslearning modelpersonal successsocial consequencestutoring actionstutoring programActive learningdrop-outempowermentself-efficacysoft skillstutoringvocational guidance
Abstracts:Contribution: A model of tutoring program for the empowerment of engineering students in the information and communication technologies (ICT) area is proposed, as a mean to improve academic performance. Background: ICT students failing to proceed smoothly along their study path, and possibly abandoning university before graduating, is becoming a significant phenomenon in many countries. This is an important issue both from the student side and from the university side: the former is facing social and economic consequences, while the latter may be hindered in the ranking systems. Intended Outcomes: Design and application of tutoring actions that can lead students to empower themselves, develop several soft skills, and eventually improve personal and academic success. Application Design: Starting from the literature on tutoring, the approach of the &#x201C;Tutor&#x00EC;a formativa de carrera&#x201D; has been selected, because it considers students as the center of the learning model. The tutoring interventions have been then redesigned and tailored to the specific context of ICT courses. Findings: The effectiveness of the proposed program has been assessed by means of different indicators: self-perception of the participating students (based on Cawi surveys), success rate at the first mathematical exams as a short-term qualitative indicator, and long-term figures of merits of the students&#x2019; career. In the latter case, proper techniques are used in order to create a quasi-experiment context. A significant impact of the proposed program is found for both students with high and low a-priori propensity to academic failure.
2022 IEEE Educational Activities Board Awards
Abstracts:The 2022 IEEE Educational Activities Board (EAB), chaired by IEEE Educational Activities Vice President Stephen M. Phillips, upon the recommendation of the EAB Awards and Recognition Committee (ARC) has named the recipients of the 2022 IEEE EAB Awards. EAB Awards recognize and honor individuals and companies for major contributions to engineering and technical education. Awards are given for meritorious activities in accreditation, continuing education, educational innovation, pre-university education, service to the IEEE EAB, standards education, employee professional development, and informal education systems, as well as related achievements that advance the practice of engineering and engineering education.
Investigating Programming Students Problem Comprehension Ability and its Association With Learning Performance
Leonardo SilvaAntónio José MendesAnabela GomesGabriel Fortes
Keywords:Programming professionPythonCodesSyntacticsInstrumentsInformaticsFrequency measurementIntroductory programmingproblem comprehensionproblem solving
Abstracts:Contribution: Students&#x2019; problem-understanding abilities and their relationship with programming learning were investigated using a methodology little explored in the existing literature. Background: Problem comprehension is an ability used during software development. Current research points to conflicting results on students&#x2019; ability to interpret problems, which calls for further research. In addition, the influence of this skill in programming learning also deserves additional studies. Research Questions: The following research questions were developed: RQ1) Can introductory programming students correctly interpret the statement of programming questions? RQ2) Is the student&#x2019;s problem comprehension ability associated with creating correct programs? Methodology: Forty-eight students enrolled in an online introductory programming course participated in the investigation. Students&#x2019; problem-understanding externalizations were analyzed, and statistical tests were performed to assess the association of this ability with programming learning performance. Findings: Most students externalized a satisfactory degree of problem-understanding competency. The cases in which students&#x2019; misinterpreted the problem were associated with creating faulty software. However, a closer analysis suggests that there are other factors that must also be considered.
The Importance of Students&#x2019; Practical Work in High Schools for Higher Education in Electronic Engineering
Danijel DankovićMiloš MarjanovićNikola MitrovićEmilija ŽivanovićMilan DankovićAneta PrijićZoran Prijić
Keywords:EducationTeamworkNickelInformaticsTask analysisPhysicsMathematicscomputer aided instructioneducational courseseducational institutionselectronic engineering educationfurther educationteachingactive learning teaching strategiescourse contentelectronic engineering studiesengineering design cycleextracurricular activitieshigh school coursehigher educationimpact assessmentpractical demonstrationspractice-oriented courseproficient high school studentsproject-based learningstudent conferencesstudents practical workUniversity scoresCourse for high school studentselectrical engineeringextracurricularpractical workproject-based learningSTEMstudents conferenceworkshops
Abstracts:Contribution: Impact assessment of the practice-oriented course for high school students on their later academic achievements, described in the context of long-term efforts to improve electronic engineering studies&#x2019; quality. The article highlights the importance of outreach and extracurricular activities and cooperation with the IEEE in these efforts. Background: Faced with the practical application of theoretical knowledge, either in laboratory exercises or on small projects, students are not as successful as expected. A high school course promoting practical work has been developed, following the gathered experience and results from other studies. The intention was to track participants&#x2019; progress not only on the course but also during their later studies at the faculty. Intended Outcomes: Increased the number of proficient high school students enrolling in the university. Improved quality of papers at student conferences, organization of workshops and events attractive to students and educators, an increased number of young members of the IEEE. Impact on the policymakers. Application Design: In tailoring the course content, the goal was to mimic an engineering design cycle through project-based learning. In contrast to deductive learning, which students were accustomed to, assessment-based and active learning teaching strategies, such as think&#x2013;pair&#x2013;share, practical demonstrations through performance tasks, and homework practice, have been used. Findings: This research documents that students with practical experience in high school have more self-confidence and better university scores than those with none. The universities should step forward in initiatives to strengthen connections with high schools and professional societies.
Bridging Mathematics and Computer Science Through Threshold Concepts
Amin Farjudian
Keywords:MathematicsTask analysisNeural networksDifferential equationsMachine learningMathematical modelsCognitive sciencecomputer science educationdifferential equationseducational courseseducational institutionslearning (artificial intelligence)neural netsbridging mathematicscomputer sciencecurriculum designliminal statemodern machine learningneural network methodsschool curriculumshallow introductionstudent projectsthreshold conceptstransformative conceptsDifferential equationmathematical foundations of computer scienceneural networksummer projectthreshold concept
Abstracts:Contribution: Using threshold concepts as the framework for curriculum design, a project on neural network methods for solving differential equations is presented, with a rich set of transformative concepts from mathematics and computer science. Projects of this kind complement a typical curriculum with expertise that is crucial for critique and fundamental development of modern machine learning. Background: The curricula of many schools of mathematics and computer science present a relatively shallow introduction to the other subject. Student projects, on the other hand, provide an effective environment for interdisciplinary research between the two disciplines. Intended Outcomes: Providing students from computer science and mathematics the opportunity to obtain a deeper understanding and appreciation of the other subject, beyond the confines of the school curriculum. Application Design: The project contains tasks that require acquisition, not just of knowledge, but also of effective strategies and mental models, relevant to a set of transformative concepts from both disciplines. The tasks require a spectrum of activities, ranging from rigorous theoretical work to coding. Findings: Although the theory of threshold concepts needs further development, the existing paradigms provide a helpful framework for curriculum design. The continuous formative assessment proved effective in monitoring the participants&#x2019; journeys through the liminal state.
Comparing Student and Recruiter Evaluations of Computer Science Resumes
Corbin PetersheimJoanna LaheyJosh CherianAngel PinaGerianne AlexanderTracy Hammond
Keywords:ResumesInterviewsComputer sciencePersonnelKnowledge engineeringIndustriesTrainingcomputer science educationfurther educationrecruitmentregression analysiscomputer science resumesCS undergraduatesentry-level computer scienceentry-level CS resumesleast-squares regressionrecruiter evaluationsrecruiter participantsresume developmentresume screening processComputer science (CS) educationresumesstudent experiments
Abstracts:Contribution: This study identifies which entry-level computer science (CS) resume items are most important and compares the ratings of student and recruiter participants to investigate the accuracy of student beliefs. To the authors&#x2019; knowledge, this study is the first to analyze the extent to which CS students understand the resume screening process. The results of this have consequences for students in their own resume development. Background: Although prior research studies the importance of different resume items generally, little is known about resumes for CS majors, which may contain distinctive sections. Less still is known about whether students understand the resume screening process. Research Questions: Which items on entry-level CS resumes most directly influence screening decisions? What gaps exist between CS students&#x2019; and recruiters&#x2019; perceptions of resume items? Does the disparity in expertise between students and recruiters contribute to differences in resume screening? Methodology: 197 recruiters and 73 CS undergraduates screened randomized CS resumes. Data were analyzed using ordinary least-squares regression with interactions. Findings: Students were more likely than recruiters to move resumes to the next level and spent about 7 s less than recruiters when screening resumes. Though students correctly assessed the value of most resume items, they significantly overestimated the value of prior work experience such as internships.
Less Is More: Students Skim Lengthy Online Textbooks
Chelsea L. GordonRoman LyseckyFrank Vahid
Keywords:CorrelationAnimationLength measurementElectronic mailStandardsMathematical modelsIEEE Sectionscomputer aided instructioneducationelectronic publishingtext analysisactive learning opportunitiescomputer science textbooksCS textbookdigital textbooksinteractive elementslengthy textbookslonger passagesnonconcise styleshorter passagesstudents skim lengthy online textbookstext passagesComputer science educationcomputing educationcomputing education programsprofessional topicssocial and professional topics
Abstracts:Computer science textbooks with lengthy text explanations of concepts are often considered thorough and rigorous, so lengthy textbooks (and class notes) are commonplace. Some, however, suggest text should be concise because people tend to skim lengthy text. This article takes advantage of modern digital textbooks that measure reading time to examine reading rates for various text passage lengths. For a widely used CS textbook written in a nonconcise style, students read shorter passages (200 words or less) at about 200 words per minute, which is a typical rate. But for longer passages (600&#x002B; words), the rate increased to about 800 words per minute, suggesting skimming rather than reading. For another widely used CS textbook, from the same publisher but written in a concise style with text passage sizes kept below 250 words, students spent more time (around 200 words per minute) reading the text passages, and their time spent was well correlated with text length, suggesting students were carefully reading rather than skimming. Across three digital textbooks, the more interactive elements (e.g., integrated questions) that were included, the more time students spent reading the text between those activities. The conclusion is that to best educate students, authors of CS content should take the extra time needed to explain concepts more concisely&#x2014;a case of &#x201C;less is more&#x201D;&#x2014;and incorporate many active learning opportunities.
Conceptual Understanding of Signals and Systems in Senior Undergraduate Students
Caroline CrockettHarry C. PowellCynthia J. Finelli
Keywords:InterviewsLinear systemsConvolutionElectrical engineeringPhysicsKnowledge engineeringStandardscomputer aided instructioneducational courseselectrical engineering educationFourier transformsconceptual problemsconceptual understandingCU semesterselectrical engineering senior studentsFourier transform representationgraphical convolutionmixed method studymultiple engineering subjectsquantitative concept inventory dataS-and-S conceptssenior undergraduate studentssignals and systemstime filteringtime invarianceuniversitiesConcept inventoryconceptual learningelectrical engineeringinterviewsmixed methods researchsignals and systems (S&S)
Abstracts:Contribution: This article proposes a new definition of conceptual understanding (CU) specific to engineering. It then measures CU of signals and systems (S&S) in senior undergraduate students and describes how students approach conceptual problems. Background: Previous studies across multiple engineering subjects show students have low CU at the end of courses. However, little is known about CU semesters after a course. Research Questions: What is the CU of S&S concepts among electrical engineering senior students? Methodology: This mixed method study uses quantitative concept inventory data <inline-formula> <tex-math notation="LaTeX">$(n=467)$ </tex-math></inline-formula> and think-aloud interviews <inline-formula> <tex-math notation="LaTeX">$(n={12})$ </tex-math></inline-formula> to measure CU. The results come from two universities. Findings: Seniors&#x2019; scores on the concept inventory are typical of scores presented at the end of an S&S course. Many struggled with the concept of linearity, made a common error when finding the maximum value in graphical convolution, and had low confidence on relating frequencies in time to a Fourier transform representation, but seniors had relatively high CU of time invariance and filtering.
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